Форум о прекрасном: Турции и всем, что с ней связано

Информация о пользователе

Привет, Гость! Войдите или зарегистрируйтесь.

Вы здесь » Форум о прекрасном: Турции и всем, что с ней связано » Все о Турции. Everything about Turkey. » Как отосятся турецкая родня к русским невесткам?

Как отосятся турецкая родня к русским невесткам?

Сообщений 51 страница 100 из 105


получается, что алеви - это переплетение многих религий, странно как-то звучит, что шиитская секта отмечает христианские праздники...очень интересная информация...слышу впервые..компромисс какой-то получается между христианством и исламом
Fistaski,  а на них нет гонений в Турции, на алеви?



Sifir Sayfa написал(а):

а на них нет гонений в Турции, на алеви?

Алеви утверждают что не имеют никакого отношения к шиитам.
Значит у них и христианство есть. Поэтому они практически изгои в Турции.
Сейчас они написали в Евросоюз письмо что правительство Турции не предостовляют им бесплатно места для построения куббатов. А так как в Конституции Турции черным по белому написано что все религии имеют место существования то я думаю они правы.



Fistaski, очень интересно...если честно я поражена на ночь глядя, слышала когда-то, что есть течения в исламе, сплетенные с христианством, но чтобы они существовали сейчас - никогда...а на быт алеви это как-то влияет, ведь если нет куббатов, то им сложно отправлять религиозный культ, как же они выход находят?
или куббаты есть, но построены они на деньги прихожан?



Нашла интересную информацию...правда на английском...

Alevis (Turkish: Aleviler Kurdish: Elewî) are a religious, sub-ethnic and cultural community in Turkey, numbering in the millions. (See "Demographics" for various population estimates.)

Alevi worship takes place in assembly houses (cemevi), not in mosques. The ceremony (âyîn-i cem, or simply cem) features music and dance (semah), which symbolize the putting off of one’s self and uniting with God. In Alevism, men and women are regarded as equals, and pray side by side.

Key Alevi principles include:

Love and respect for all people (“The important thing is not religion, but being a human being”)
Tolerance towards other religions and ethnic groups (“If you hurt another person, the ritual prayers you have done are counted as worthless”)
Respect for working people ("The greatest act of worship is to work”)
Some consider Alevism a type of Shi'a Islam (and specifically, of Twelvers (Ithna-'Ashariyya), since Alevis accept Shi‘i beliefs about Imam Ali and the Twelve Imams. Many Alevis, however, are uncomfortable describing themselves as Shi‘i, since there are major differences in philosophy, customs, and rituals from the prevailing form of Shi‘ism in modern Iran.

Alevism is also closely related to the Bektashi Sufi lineage, in the sense that both venerate Hajji Bektash Wali (Hacibektaş Veli), a saint of the 13th century. Many Alevis refer to an "Alevi-Bektashi" tradition, but this identity is not universally accepted, nor is the combined name used by non-Turkish Bektashis (e.g., in the Balkans).

In addition to its religious aspect, Alevism is also closely associated with Anatolian folk culture. The Kurdish and Turkish languages (not Arabic) are generally used in Alevi rituals.

Modern Alevi theology has been profoundly influenced by humanism and universalism. During the 1960s, many younger Alevis came to conceive of Alevism in non-religious terms, with some even relating it to Marxism. The 1990s brought a new emphasis on Alevism as an ethnic or cultural identity. Alevi communities today generally support secularism after the Kemalist model, partly out of mistrust of majoritarian religiosity.

Alevis in Khorasan, Armenia and Azerbaijan speak dialects of Kurmanji or Zazaki. Various groups with similar beliefs exist in Northwestern Iran and Northern Iraq, including the Ibrahimi, Sarliyya, Kakai, Shabaks and Ahl-e Haqq.
The Name

Zulfiqar, a stylized representation of the sword of Ali."Alevi" is generally explained as referring to ˤAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib - cousin, son-in-law, and fostered son of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The name is a Turkish and Kurdish pronunciation of the Arabic ˤAlawī علوي "of or pertaining to ˤAlī". However, the Turkish and Kurdish-speaking Alevi are not to be confused with the ˤAlawī of Syria, with whom they have little in common other than a shared veneration for ˤAlī.

An alternative (and less accepted) explanation for the name "Alevi" is that it comes from the Turkish word alev, meaning "flame."

Alevi are sometimes called "Qizilbashi" (see "History" for an explanation) and some embrace this name. Others view this as a pejorative (implying that their allegiance lies with Iran rather than Turkey). Many other names exist (often for subgroupings), among them Tahtacı "Woodcutters", Abdal "Bards" and Çepni.

Main article: Alevi History
"Be a child of your times!"--attributed to ˤAlī
Attempts to identify the origin of Alevism are inherently controversial. Many Alevis trace their tradition to primitive Islam and the Twelve Imams, a conclusion which some prominent scholars agree.[1] Others see Alevism as a pre-Islamic substrate which acquired a veneer of Shīˤī theology, and disagree as to whether to describe this folk culture as Turkic or Persianate. Still others detect Orthodox Christian influence, perhaps Armenian. More than one of these viewpoints might be true simultaneously.

During the Seljuk period (eleventh and twelfth centuries), northern Iran and eastern Anatolia fell under the domination of nomadic Turkic tribes migrating out of Central Asia. Their conversion to Shīˤī Islam came during the Ilkhanate Mongol period by means of charismatic Sufi missionaries, who typically established family-based lineages. The poet Yunus Emre and wonder-working saint Hajji Bektash Wali, whose names would later become associated with Alevism, lived during this period (or shortly after), if the latter figure is not entirely legendary.

The forms of Shīˤism which arose in such groups typically neglected practices emphasized by the Shīˤī mainstream (such as daily prayer). At the same time, religious practices, beliefs, and institutions would have become difficult to distinguish from secular ones such as folk dances, or the tribal leadership structure. It is likely that elements of nomadic Turkish society such as these have survived into later Alevism as well. For example, shamanic influences have been detected in the Alevi "Crane Dance".

Another theory (favored particularly by Kurdish Alevis) is that, as these Turkic tribes migrated across the Iranian cultural sphere they adopted various elements of pre-Islamic Iranian religions. As evidence they point to similarities between Alevism and Kurdish religious movements such as Yarsansim and Yazidism.

In any case, these nomadic Turkic groups came to occupy the borderlands between two great sedentary societies, the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia, which though founded by nomadic Turks like themselves, gradually distanced themselves from this Central Asian heritage.

Shah Isma'il was a hereditary leader of the Safaviyya Sufi order centered in Ardabil who led his (predominantly Azeri) followers, called Qizilbashi Redheads after their distinctive headgear, in conquering Persia. The result was the founding of the Safavid Dynasty, and the conversion of Iran to Shīˤism. Shah Ismail's personal religious views are reflected in his Turkish-language Sufi poetry of a ghulat nature (he claimed divinity), of which selections came to be included in Alevi scriptural compilations, the Buyruks. The religion of the Iranian populace, however, fell under the domination of imported Arab clerics who downplayed the ghulat beliefs of the Turkish warrior class.

Meanwhile, the rulers of the Ottoman Empire gradually distanced themselves from their nomadic Turkic heritage, ultimately (during the thirteenth century) adopting the Sunnism of their Mediterranean subjects. During the long rivalry with Safavid Persia Qizilbashi tribes fought for Persian (or local) control of the Anatolian highlands, and were responsible for several 15th and 16th century uprisings against the Ottomans. The 1555 Peace of Amasya found them on the "wrong" side of the Ottoman / Persian border, as subjects of an Ottoman court which viewed them with suspicion. Massacres of Qizilbashi occurred.

The career of Pir Sultan Abdal (assuming he existed as a single person) takes place in this context. Apparently a 16th century folk musician from Sivas, Pir Sultan Abdal was known for playing a stringed instrument called the bağlama and singing songs critical of his Ottoman governors, in defense of the rights of the Anatolian peasantry. Hanged for fomenting rebellion, he became another beloved figure in Alevi folklore and is now often invoked as a symbol of Alevism's leftist aspect. He is also preferred by Alevi Kurds, who appreciate his protest against the Turkish establishment, over Hajji Bektash Wali (whom they identify with the Turks).

Under Ottoman rule the Alevi emerged as an endogamous ethnic group, primarily Turkish-speaking (but also including Kurdish communities), concentrated in rural Anatolia. (One writer speculates that Dersim's Kurds converted to Alevism from another ghulat sect.)[2] Led by hereditary dedes, and sometimes by Bektashi dervishes, they practiced taqiyya "dissimulation, secrecy" about their religion.

Bektashi identity may have been adopted to this end, since the Bektashis were technically Sunni and tolerated by the court. After the 1826 disbanding of the Janissary Corps, the now-proscribed Bektashi order began to meet underground, like the Alevi. Adherents of the two groups blurred together to some extent. In the years before and during World War I the Çelebi family, one of two leadership groups associated with the shrine of Hacı Bektaş, attempted to extend its authority to the village Bektashi (Alevi) dedes, whose own hierarchy was in disarray. Some Alevi groups accepted this Bektashi authority, others did not.[3]

Alevis were early supporters of Atatürk, who they credit with ending Ottoman-era discrimination against them, while Kurdish Alevis viewed his rise with caution. His 1925 banning of Sufi tariqas also applied to the Alevis and Bektashis, who must have viewed the move with mixed feelings. At the same time the "Turkish" culture which Atatürk promoted was largely inspired by Alevi traditions. Many Kurdish Alevis fought against the 1925 Kurdish rebellion, but took the Kurdish side in the Dersim rebellion of the 1930s.

Among Turkish Alevis, Kemalism lost much of its appeal during the 1960s, when Turkish nationalists made common cause with Sunni religious groups. As a result of this, and other trends such as urbanization, younger Alevis gravitated toward socialism, then (after the fall of the Soviet bloc) ethno-nationalism. Even so, portraits of Atatürk remain ubiquitous in Alevi circles, and some Alevis even perceive him as a religious hero.

Contact with Sunni groups among urbanized Alevi led to political clashes in the 1970s, which often pitted nationalist Sunnis against socialist-leaning Alevis. Sunni mobs killed Alevis in Malatya, Kahramanmaraş, and Çorum. 1980 brought martial law (which disproportionately targeted Alevis, given their leftist alignment). With the political thaw of the 1990s, Alevis in Turkey, influenced by the activities of their brethren in Europe, especially Germany, began to actively publish Alevi books, and open Alevi cultural centers.[4]

Sivas massacre
Main article: Sivas massacre
On July 2, 1993, Alevis were celebrating the Pir Sultan Abdal Festival. Coming out of mosques after their Friday's prayer, a mob of 20,000 or so Sunnis surrounded the Madimak hotel, chanting anti-Alevi and pro-sharia slogans. They set the hotel on fire and pelted the hotel with stones. While the fire killed thirty three Alevis, the police, soldiers, and the fire-department did nothing to stop the fire, or save the people. The events surrounding the massacre were captured by TV cameras and broadcast all over the world. Every year, during the anniversary of the massacre, various Alevi organizations call for the arrest of those responsible. 33 individuals were sentenced to death in 1997 for crimes related to the massacre.

There was also a drive-by shooting of Alevis in Istanbul's Gazi neighborhood in 1995 which resulted in the death of some Alevis. Then when protests followed police periodically opened fire on the demonstrators. When the protests were over there were a total of fifteen Alevis killed. The result was a revival of Alevi identity, and debate over this identity which continues today.


Alevis in Turkey The Alevi population has been estimated as follows:

"approx. 15 million..." --Krisztina Kehl-Bodrogi.[5]
In Turkey, 15 percent of Turkey's population (approx. 10.6 million) --David Shankland[6]
"Most Alevi writers and spokespersons claim that Turkey's population today is one-third Alevi-Bektashi, or more than 20 million. Lower estimates range from 10 to 12 million."--John Schindeldecker.[7]
"The Alevi constitute the second largest religious community in Turkey (following the Sunnis), and number some 25% (15 million) of the total population (Alevis claim 30%-40%!). Most Alevis are ethnic and linguistic Turks, mainly of Turkmen descent from Central and Eastern Anatolia. Some 20% of Alevis are Kurds (though most Kurds are Sunnis), and some 25% of Kurds in Turkey are Alevi (Kurmanji and Zaza speakers)." --David Zeidan.[8]
"15 to 20 million..." --Olli Rehn, from the 1996 (Camiel) "Eurlings Report" to the European Commission (on the suitability of Turkish accession to the EU).
"...a world total of between 15 and 25 million adherents. There is no independent data for their numbers, so these statistics are estimates or conjectures." --"Alevism," from The Encyclopedia of the Orient.
In June 2008 several Turkish newspapers reported that military had commissioned 3 universities to research the ethnic demographics of Turkey. Study included all ethnic groupings and not just Alevis. According to the results Alevi population of Turkey, including those who currently reside in Europe, is around 10 million. After the death of its leader due to a suspicious traffic accident, remaining research scientists abondened the project and never published the results. [9] [10]
The majority of Alevis are ethnic Turks. Some are Kurds. Some are Zazaki, a group whose members either consider themselves Kurds with a different language, or as a distinct ethnicity. Some Alevis are Azeris. Despite universalist rhetoric (and in contrast with Islam in general, or the Bektashi order), Alevi communities do not generally acknowledge the possibility of conversion to Alevism.

Alevi communities are concentrated in central Anatolia, in a belt from Chorum in the west to Mush in the east. The only province within Turkey with an Alevi majority is Tunceli, formerly known as Dersim. Beginning in the 1960s, many Alevis have migrated to the large cities of western and southern Turkey--as well as to western Europe, especially Germany--and are now heavily urbanized.

There are also large communities of Alevis in some regions of Iranian Azerbaijan. The town of Ilkhichi (İlxıçı), which is located 87 km south west of Tabriz is almost entirely populated by Alevis.[citation needed] For political reasons, one of which was to create a distinct identity for these communities, they have not been called Alevi since the early 20th century.[citation needed] They are called various names, such as Ali Illahi, Ahl-e Haqq and Goran.

Groups with similar beliefs also exist in Iranian Kurdistan. Interestingly both the Dersim (Kirmancki / Zaza) people and the Gorani, who are both considered as belonging to the Hawramani branch of the proto-Kurdish language, adhere to a form of Alevi faith which resembles in many significant respects, such as the perpetuation of a caste system, the religions of the Druze or Yazidi.

A Turkish scholar working in France has distinguished four main groups among contemporary Alevis, which cautiously show their distinctive features in modern Turkey.

The first is mainly represented by the urban population and emerged during the Republic. It has for decades belonged to the political left and regards Alevism as an outlook on life more than a religion. The followers hold ritual unions of a religious character and have also established cultural associations named after Pir Sultan Abdal. Man enjoys a central role, as illustrated by the phrase "God is Man" quoted above in the context of the Trinity.
The second group is more directed towards heterodox mysticism and stands closer to the Haci Bektashi Brotherhood. St Francis of Assisi and Mahatma Gandhi are considered better believers than many a Muslim.
The third group regards themselves as true Muslims and are prepared to cooperate with the state. It adheres to the way of Jafar as-Sadiq, the sixth Imam. Its concept of God is closer to orthodox Islam, but like the two groups already mentioned it considers the Qur'an to have been manipulated by the early Sunni Caliphs in order to eliminate Ali.
The fourth is said to be under active influence from official Iranian Shi'a to be confirmed adherents to Twelver Shia and to reject Bektashism. It follows Sharia and opposes secular state power. Information on strength and location is not available.

Alevi beliefs are hard to define, since Alevism is a diverse movement without any central authority, and its boundaries with other groups are poorly demarcated. Many teachings are based on an orally transmitted tradition which has traditionally been kept secret from outsiders (but is now widely accessible).[citation needed] The basis for Alevism's most distinctive beliefs is found in the Buyruks (compiled writings and dialogues of Sheikh Safi al-Din (eponym of the Safavi order), Ja'far al-Sadiq (the Sixth Imam), and other worthies). Also included are hymns (nefes) by figures such as Shah Ismail or Pir Sultan Abdal, stories of Hajji Bektash and other lore.

Various opinions exist as to the nature of 'Ali. Most would credit him with supernatural strength and wisdom (surpassed only by the prophets), as well as a uniquely intimate connection with the Prophet Muhammad:

Muhammed ilim şehridir, Ali kapısıdır.
Muhammed is the city of spiritual knowledge, Ali is the door.
Many Alevi perceive a mystical unity between Ali and Muhammad (see Ali-Muhammad), and liken their relationship to the two sides of a coin, or two halves of an apple:

Ali Muhammed'dir, Muhammed Ali
Gördüm bir elmadır, elhamdü-lillâh
Ali is Muhammed, Muhammed is Ali;
I saw one apple, all praise is for Allah
The phrase "For the love of God, Muhammed, Ali” (Hak-Muhammed-Ali aşkına), common to several Alevi prayers, may be taken as equating the authority of the three, or even as an attribution of divinity to 'Ali and Muhammad. In light of the Islamic emphasis on monotheism, such theories are deeply controversial.

Each of the Twelve Imams is said to partake of the "light" (Nur) of 'Ali. Thus Ali ibn Abi Talib is called the "First Ali" (birinci ali), Hussayn ibn 'Alī the 'Second 'Ali' (ikinci ali), and so on up to the "Last 'Ali" (Onikinci Ali), Muhammad al-Mahdi.

Despite this essentially Shi‘i orientation, much of Alevism's mystical language is inspired by Sunni traditions. For example, the Alevi concept of God is derived from the philosophy of Ibn al-'Arabi and involves a chain of emanation from God, to spiritual man, earthly man, animals, plants, and minerals. The goal of spiritual life is to follow this path in the reverse direction, to unity with God, or Haqq (Reality, Truth). From the highest perspective, all is God (see Wahdat-ul-Wujood). Alevis often admire Mansur Al-Hallaj, a 10th century Sufi executed in Baghdad for blasphemy for saying “I am Truth” (Ana al-Haqq).

Another important Alevi concept is that of the "Perfect Human Being" (Insan-i Kamil). (This wording is Sunni; the Shi‘i counterpart would be the "Perfect Shi'a".) Most Alevis would think first of Ali, Hajji Bektash Wali, or the other saints. However the Perfect Human Being has also been identified with our true identity as pure consciousness, hence the Qur'anic concept of human beings not having original sin, consciousness being pure and perfect. The human task is to fully realise this state while still in material human form.

Many Alevis would define the Perfect Human Being in practical terms, as one who is in full moral control of his or her hands, tongue and loins (eline diline beline sahip); treats all kinds of people equally (yetmiş iki millete aynı gözle bakar); and serves the interests of others. One who has achieved this kind of enlightenment is also called eren or munavver.

The Alevi spiritual path (yol) is commonly understood to take place through four major life-stages, or "gates":

1. Sheriat (Sharia) ("religious law")
2. Tarikat ("spiritual brotherhood")
3. Marifat ("spiritual knowledge")
4. Hakikat ("Reality" or "Truth", i.e., God)
These may be further subdivided into "four gates, forty levels (dört kapı kırk makam). The first gate (religious law) is considered elementary (and in this we may perceive a subtle criticism of other Muslim traditions).

Alevi legal principles do exist. The following are major crimes that cause an Alevi to be declared düşkün (shunned)

killing a person
committing adultery
divorcing one’s wife
marrying a divorced woman

Most Alevi activity takes place in the context of the second gate (spiritual brotherhood), during which one submits to a living spiritual guide (dede, pir, mürşit). The existence of the third and fourth gates is mostly theoretical, though some older Alevis have apparently received initiation into the third.[14]

The central Alevi corporate worship service is the cem (a Kurdish word meaning congregational or assembly meeting). The ceremony's prototype is the Prophet Muhammad's nocturnal ascent into heaven, where he beheld a gathering of forty saints (Kırklar Meclisi), and the Divine Reality made manifest in their leader, Ali.

Semah, a family of ritual dances characterized by turning and swirling, is an inseparable part of any cem. It is performed by men and women, to the accompaniment of the bağlama.

The Rite of Integration (görgü cemi) is a complex ritual occasion in which a variety of tasks are allotted to incumbents bound together by extrafamilial brotherhood (musahiplik), who undertake a dramatization of unity and integration under the direction of the spiritual leader (dede).

The phrase mum söndü ("The candle went out") alludes to a holy moment of some cem rituals in which twelve candles (representing the Twelve Imams) are doused with water. Contrary to a hoary tradition of Sunni gossip, and to the undoubted disappointment of many, orgies apparently do not follow (though it is of course difficult to prove a negative). Rather, participants lament the martyrdom of various holy figures.

Musahiplik (roughly, "Companionship") is a covenant relationship between two men of the same age, preferably along with their wives. In a ceremony in the presence of a dede the partners make a life-long commitment to care for the spiritual, emotional, and physical needs of each other and their children. The ties between couples who have made this commitment is at least as strong as it is for blood relatives, so much so that müsahiplik is often called spiritual brotherhood (manevi kardeşlik). The children of covenanted couples may not marry.[15]

Krisztina Kehl-Bodrogi reports that the Tahtaci identify musahiplik with the first gate (şeriat), since they regard it as a precondition for the second (tarikat). Those who attain to the third gate (marifat, "gnosis") must have been in a musahiplik relationship for at least twelve years. Entry into the third gate dissolves the musahiplik relationship (which otherwise persists unto death), in a ceremony called Öz Verme Ayini ("ceremony of giving up the self").

The value corresponding to the second gate (and necessary to enter the third) is aşinalik ("intimacy," perhaps with God). Its counterpart for the third gate is called peşinelik; for the fourth gate (hakikat, Ultimate Truth), cingildaşlik or cegildaşlik (translations uncertain).[16]

Folk practices
Many folk practices may be identified, though few of them are specific to the Alevis. In this connection, scholar Martin van Bruinessen notes a sign from Turkey's Ministry of Religion, attached to Istanbul's shrine of Eyüp Sultan, which presents

...a long list of ‘superstitious’ practices that are emphatically declared to be non-Islamic and objectionable, such as lighting candles or placing ‘wishing stones’ on the tomb, tying pieces of cloth to the shrine or to the trees in front of it, throwing money on the tomb, asking the dead directly for help, circling seven times around the trees in the courtyard or pressing one’s face against the walls of the türbe in the hope of a supernatural cure, tying beads to the shrine and expecting supernatural support from them, sacrificing roosters or turkeys as a vow to the shrine. The list is probably an inventory of common local practices the authorities wish to prevent from re-emerging.[17]

Other, similar practices include kissing door frames of holy rooms; not stepping on the threshold of holy buildings; seeking prayers from reputed healers; making 'Lokma' and sharing it with others.

Newroz (Persian: Nowroz, literally "New Day") is the ancient Iranian New Year, observed and practiced by Iranians and many ethnic groups(Ulghurs, Kurds, Uzbeks...)on 21 March (the Spring equinox) as a celebration of newness and reconciliation. Apart from the original beliefs of the Zorastrian founders of Nowruz, Alevi also celebrate and commemorate the birth of Ali; the wedding of Ali and Fatima; the rescue of the prophet Joseph from the well; and / or the creation of the world on this day. Various cems and special programs are held.

Hidrellez honors the mysterious figure Khidr (Turkish Hizir) who is sometimes identified with the prophet Elijah (Ilyas), and is said to have drunk of the water of life. Some hold that Khidr comes to the rescue of those in distress on land, while Elijah helps those at sea; and that they meet at a rose tree in the evening of every 6th of May. The festival is also celebrated in parts of the Balkans by the name of "Erdelez," where it falls on the same day as Djurdjevdan or St. George's Day.

Khidr is also honored with a three-day fast in mid-February called Hızır Orucu. In addition to avoiding any sort of comfort or enjoyment, Alevis also abstain from food and water for the entire day, though they do drink liquids other than water during the evening.

Note that the dates of the Khidr holidays can differ among Alevis, most of whom use a lunar calendar, but some a solar calendar.

The Muslim month of Muharram (or Mâtem Orucu) begins 20 days after Eid ul-Adha (Kurban Bayramı). Alevis observe a fast for the first twelve days. This culminates in the festival of Ashura (Aşure), which commemorates the martyrdom of Imam Hussain at Karbala. The fast is broken with a special dish (also called aşure) prepared from a variety (often twelve in number) of fruits, nuts, and grains. Many events are associated with this celebration, including the salvation of Hussain's son Zaynul Abideen from the massacre at Karbala, thus allowing the bloodline of the family of the prophet to continue.

Alevis are not expected to give Zakat in the Islamic mode, and there is no set formula or prescribed amount for charity. A common method of Alevi almsgiving is through donating food (especially sacrificial animals) to be shared with worshippers and guests. Alevis also donate money to be used to help the poor, to support the religious, educational and cultural activities of Alevi centers and organizations (dergâh, vakıf, dernek), and to provide scholarships for students.

Sacred Places
While Alevism does not recognize an obligation to go on pilgrimage, visiting ziyarat and performing dua at the tombs of Alevi-Bektashi saints or Pirs is quite common. Some of the most frequently visited sites are the shrines of Shahkulu and Karacaahmet (both in Istanbul), Abdal Musa (Antalya), Seyit Gazi (Eskishehir), the annual celebrations held at Hacibektas (16 August) and Sivas (the Pir Sultan Abdal Kültür Etkinlikleri, 23-24 June).

In contrast with the traditional secrecy of the cem ritual, the events at these cultural centers and sites are open to the public. In the case of the Hacibektaş celebration, since 1990 the activities there have been taken over by Turkey's Ministry of Culture in the interest of promoting tourism and Turkish patriotism rather than Alevi spirituality.

Some Alevis make pilgrimages to mountains and other natural sites believed to be imbued with holiness.

Leadership structure
In contrast to the Bektashi tariqa, which like other Sufi orders is based on a silsila "initiatory chain or lineage" of teachers and their students, Alevi leaders succeed to their role on the basis of family descent. Perhaps ten percent of Alevis belong to a religious elite called ocak "hearth", indicating descent from ˤAlī and/or various other saints and heroes. Ocak members are called ocakzades or "sons of the hearth". This system apparently originated with Safavid Persia.

Alevi leaders are variously called murshid, pir, rehber or dede. Groups that conceive of these as ranks of a hierarchy (as in the Bektashi tariqa) disagree as to the order. The last of these, dede "grandfather", is the term preferred by the scholarly literature. Ocakzades may attain to the position of dede on the basis of selection (by a father from among several sons), character, and learning. In contrast to Alevi rhetoric on the equality of the sexes, it is generally assumed that only males may fill such leadership roles.

Traditionally dedes did not merely lead rituals, but led their communities, often in conjunction with local notables such as the ağas (large landowners) of the Dersim Region. They also acted as judges or arbiters, presiding over village courts called Düşkünlük Meydanı.

Ordinary Alevi would owe allegiance to a particular dede lineage (but not others) on the basis of pre-existing family or village relations. Some fall instead under the authority of Bektashi dargah (lodges).

In the wake of 20th century urbanization (which removed young laborers from the villages) and socialist influence (which looked upon the dedes with suspicion), the old hierarchy has largely broken down. Many dedes now receive salaries from Alevi cultural centers, which arguably subordinates their role.[18] Such centers no longer feature community business or deliberation, such as the old ritual of reconciliation, but emphasize musical and dance performance to the exclusion of these.[19] Dedes are now approached on a voluntary basis, and their role has become more circumscribed—limited to religious rituals, research, and giving advice.

Women in Alevism
According to Australian anthropologist Dr. Sevgi Kilic, while Alevi women do not experience gender segregation in the private and public domain they are subject to traditional male values about women's sexuality and constructed within the honour/shame paradigm. Dr. Sevgi Kilic is of Alevi heritage and her family migrated to Australia some 40 years ago. Growing up in a western society she was unaware of the rich culture and traditions and the unique identity of the Alevi, and she poignantly reveals how she "learnt to be an Alevi" through the narratives of the women in her study. This ethnography is the first on Alevi women in Turkey and argues that Alevi identity is complex, diverse and rich in its theory and practice.

Hence, while rural Alevi women ascribe to traditional conservative views about women's status in the family these ideas are rapidly changing within an urban environment, where many are compelled to work as domestic servants and in other low paid jobs. Unlike Sunni women in Turkey, Alevi women are not required to wear a headscarf or other bodily coverings. According to Kilic this is because Alevi identity is very much focused on the internal rather than the external representation and covering women's hair or concealing the female body in and of itself cannot legitimize women's moral, social, political and economic worth. Thus an unveiled Alevi woman cannot impugn her honour or her communities. Thus Alevi women's bodies are what Kilic calls paradoxically 'neutral' and acts as an "ideology of difference."

Relations with other Muslim groups
The relationship between Alevis and Sunnis is one of mutual suspicion and prejudice dating back to the Ottoman period. Sunnis have accused Alevis of heresy, heterodoxy, rebellion, betrayal and immorality. Alevis, on the other hand, have argued that the original Quran does not demand five prayers, nor mosque attendance, nor pilgrimage, and that the Sunnis distorted early Islam by omitting, misinterpreting, or changing important passages of the original Quran, especially those dealing with Ali and ritual practice.

Alevis see Sunni narrowmindedness as originating in Arabia and as contrary to the Turkish national character. Sunna and Hadith were Arab elite innovations, created to ensure Arab dominance of Islam and to enslave the masses through manipulation. All evil developments in Islam are seen as the fault of Arab society and character. Sunnism, according to the Alevis, is not true Islam but an aberration that by its strict legalism opposes free and independent thought and is seen as reactionary, bigoted, fanatic, and antidemocratic. Alevis believe Sunni nationalism is intolerant, domineering, and unwilling to recognize Alevi uniqueness.[21]

The ideals of equality, justice, and respect for all are prominent in Alevi society and give Alevi women a more respected status than that of Sunni women. Alevi women do not need to be veiled and are not as segregated, nor must they fear polygamy or one-sided divorce as Alevis practice monogamy and divorce is forbidden. Women also partake equally in the religious life of the community.

In today's political arena Alevis see themselves as a counterforce to Sunni fundamentalism, ensuring the continued secularism of Turkey. Alevis, who have a great interest in blocking the rising fundamentalist influence, are the main allies of the secularist forces, and are also searching for alliances with moderate Sunnis against the extremists. They are demanding that the state recognize Alevism as an official Islamic community equal to, but different from, Sunnism.

There is some tension between folk tradition Alevism and the Bektashi Order, which is a Sufi order founded on Alevi beliefs.[23] In certain Turkish communities other Sufi orders ( the Halveti-Jerrahi and some of the Rifa'i) have incorporated significant Alevi influence. Though generally regarded as a Sunni group historically, some Rifa'is accept the Alevi identity. This is particularly common among Turkish teacher Sherif Baba's Rifa'i Marufi Order, whose worship combines elements of typical Alevi traditions with Sunni practices. They have sometimes identified with the Alevi, with whom they share secularist principles, a general scepticism of extreme orthodoxy, an emphasis on men and women worshipping together, a common group of revered saints such as Hajji Bektash Veli and Pir Sultan Abdal and a deep devotion to the family of the Prophet Muhammad.

Like many of the so-called "ghulat" groups, Alevis praise Ali beyond what mainstream Shi‘ites would allow. He and Muhammad are likened to the two sides of a coin, or the two halves of an apple. Some even speak of a trinity of Allah, Muhammad, and Ali. According to Shi'a belief, whoever says the Shahadah is considered a Muslim. Accordingly, Ayatollah Khomeini put an end to excluding Alevis from the ranks of Muslims. He pronounced that they are technically considered Muslims even if they have differing beliefs to the Usoolis.

Alevi music
Alevi religious services, referred to collectively as cem or âyîn, include spiritual exercises that incorporate elements of zikr ("remembrance" or recitation of God's names, in this case without controlled breathing, but with some elements of body posturing) and sema (ritual dance). The latter is accompanied by sung mystical poetry in the vernacular, and by the sacred ritual instrument known as baglama or saz (a plucked folk lute with frets).

Such music is performed by specialists known as zâkir, aik, sazende or güvende, depending on regional usage. They are recruited from Alevi communities and descended from dede lineages. Many are also known to be poet/minstrels (aik, ozan) who perpetuate the tradition of dervish-lodge (tekke) poets such as Yunus Emre (13th century), Nesîmî (14th century), Pir Sultan Abdal, Hata'î and Genç Abdal (16th century) and Kul Himmet and Kul Hüseyn (17th century). The poetry was composed in the Turkish vernacular and follows the principles of folk prosody known as hece vezne in which the focus is the number of syllables.

The specialized sacred musical repertoire of Alevi musicians includes

Deyiş (songs of mystical love)
Nefes (hymns concerning the mystical experience)
Düvaz or düvâzdeh imâm (hymns in honor of the 12 Alid imams)
Mersiye (laments concerning the martyrdom of Imam Huseyn at Karbala)
Miraclama (songs about the ascent of the Prophet Muhammad to heaven)
Sema (ritual dance accompanied by folk lutes and sung poetry)
The dances are performed with dignity by couples, and choreographies employ circle and line formations as well as arrangements where couples face one another, thus synchronizing their movements more closely. As the tempo of the music increases, the figures become more complex and intense. There are many regional variants of sema, but the most widespread and important are the Dance of the Forty (Kırklar Semah) and the Dance of the Cranes (Turnalar Semah).

The âyîn-i-cem can be heard on the JVC CD Turkey. An Esoteric Sufi Ceremony. Unfortunately for non-specialists, the notes are very vague and give no indication of location, performers, musical genres or poetic forms. The recording was made in Istanbul in 1993, and the ceremony includes in an order typical of a cem: a deyi that reiterates the line of descent of the sect in a historical framework, two düvaz (one based on the poetry of Hatayi, and the other on the poetry of Kul Himmet), prayer formulas, the illâllâh genre that incorporates the tahlîl formula into the poem to create an atmosphere of zikr while sect members create rhythmic intensity by hitting their knees in time to the music and sway their bodies slightly, the Dance of the Forty (Kırklar Semah), the Dance of the Cranes (Turnalar Semah) and prayer formulas.

Alevis have a significant role in Turkish music and poetry. Pir Sultan Abdal, a 16th century Alevi poet whose poems and songs often contain spiritual themes, is revered as a saint and hero. Important figures are the Sufi poet Yunus Emre, widely regarded as having been Alevi, and Kaygusuz Abdal. Their poems shape Turkish culture up to now, and are also performed by modern artists. Songs attributed to these poets have been embraced by left-wingers in the 20th century. The aşık bards are also influenced by Alevi tradition.

Many of the major traditional musicians in Turkey are Alevi, including Arif Sağ, Musa Eroğlu, Erdal Erzincan, Neşet Ertaş, Muharrem Ertaş, Aşık Mahzuni Şerif, Aşık Feyzullah Çınar, Aşık Veysel Şatıroğlu, Ali Ekber Çiçek, Sabahat Akkiraz, Belkıs Akkale, and Ulaş Özdemir. Other non-Alevis, such as Ruhi Su and Zülfü Livaneli, have recorded many Alevi songs. Mercan Dede, an artist whose music combines electronic and traditional Sufi elements, has made some songs involving Alevi themes in cooperation with singer Sabahat Akkiraz.



Нашла ещё несколько интересных фотографий алеви
1 -ритуальные танцы
2-посёлок алеви
3-алеви с ноутами(колоритный снимок :D )





Отредактировано Fistaski (2008-08-22 01:56:22)



какие алеви продвинутые с ноутами!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! :jumping:



Президент Сирии тоже из алявитов, поэтому там против них никто ничего не может сказать  :D



Ко мне родня мужа отлично относится. приняли как родную...



Меня семья очень любит, очень радуются, что я учу турецкий, и ждут, когда же  мы уже поскорей поженимся :)))



Все зависит исключительно от семьи. Хотя мало какая семья здесь будет радоваться русской невестке.



И мужа , и моя семья к нашей свадьбе отнеслись положительно. В Турции меня приняли как родную (мы жили с его родителями 3 месяца). А вот на счёт имени мне действительно неприятно, Наташа - такое красивое имя, а имеет такую дурную  славу в Турции, да и у здешних турков. Муж представил меня своим родителям как Натали. По поводу фильмов тоже согласна, часто смотрю и вижу, что как проститутка, так обязательно славянка Татьяна, Наташа...Обидно :(

Отредактировано Özkan (2008-10-17 16:29:51)



Вот про Наташ и печально.... При том что большой процент из них живет скажем так за счет этих Наташ и их мужей......



anglichanka написал(а):

большой процент из них живет скажем так за счет этих Наташ и их мужей......

Привет, что-то я не совсем поняла, в каком смысле "за счет этих Наташ и их мужей"?



Stasya0777 написал(а):

за счет этих Наташ и их мужей"

наверное в том смысле, что эти женщины говорят, что едут отдохнуть,а мужья им оплачивают, а они, в свою очередь, содержат турок, вот и получается, что они

anglichanka написал(а):

за счет этих Наташ и их мужей......

я так поняла, но, может у автора другая точка зрения



ko mne ego rodnya otnositsya prosto zamechatel'no,nichego plohogo skazat' ne mogu



Rusalka_russe написал(а):

ko mne ego rodnya otnositsya prosto zamechatel'no,nichego plohogo skazat' ne mogu

а вы встречаетесь или уже поженились?



samira написал(а):

Rusalka_russe написал(а):
ko mne ego rodnya otnositsya prosto zamechatel'no,nichego plohogo skazat' ne moguа вы встречаетесь или уже поженились?

на прошлой неделе свадьба была :love: а до этого я три месяца с его родителями прожила и они меня как дочку родную приняли



vsem privetik, ya zamygem, 2 mesyaca givy v turkey s roditelyami muga, oni menya lubyat kak doch, i vse rodstveniki obogaut, ludi zdes super, takie vse milii, eda ih ochen nravitsya, radi myga vikinula vse svoi korotkie maechki, noshu djinsi, no bolshe platya, kultura mne ih ochen nravitsya, ne ponimau ludei kotorii pishut pro turkey ochen ploho, devchenki zdes super




Добрый вечер.А давно вы знакомы с мужем.Как прошло первое знакомство с родителями?вы в в Анкаре живете?



Не могу сказать, что выбором моего мужа родители были довольны (ведь далеко не каждая турецкая семья ищет в жены русскую невесту своим ненаглядным сыновьям), однако впоследствии приняли как дочь и относятся ко мне хорошо, более того в наших отношениях я вижу только положительные стороны, поистине приятные моменты в общении!



nastulya написал(а):

ne ponimau ludei kotorii pishut pro turkey ochen ploho, devchenki zdes super

Вы так говорите,потому что попали в семью,которая хорошо к вам относится и наверное с более ли менее современными взглядами.Я не хочу сказать,что Турция мне не нравится.Страна мне очень нравится.И вроде живу я не в деревне,а в Измире,всё-таки третий по величине город Турции,но нравы тут-мама не горюй.И отношение тоже двойственное.Сестра мужа меня тихо ненавидит,жена брата неумело делает вид,что обожает,но её истинное отношение видно во всём,в взглядах,жестах...Есть конечно несколько семей,которые ко мне хорошо относятся.но они в значительном меньшинстве.И это при всём при том,что я ношу довольно таки закрытую одежду,не пользуюсь декоративной косметикой,и вообще стараюсь жить по здешним правилам. :confused:
Турция воистину страна контрастов.Поэтому,девушки,прежде чем решиться на постоянную жизнь тут хорошо взвесте все "за" и "против".Одно дело ехать в качестве туриста,или даже погостить,а другое дело на ПМЖ.Люди открываются совсем с другой стороны.
Кстати слышала очень много негатива по отношению к кудским семьям,со своей стороны могу сказать,что тут в Измире у мужа очень много друзей курдов,и как ни странно это все очень хорошие люди,приятные в общении,очень милые и доброжелательные.И их отношение к жёнам гораздо более лояльное по сравнению с турками.Я наблюдала не одну семью-была просто поражена насколько бережное отношение к женщине. :cool:



Fistaski написал(а):

а другое дело на ПМЖ

Fistaski а ты, когда уезжала с Украины, оформляла документы на ПМЖ или просто поехала :question:
Мне повезло и с мужем, и с его родственниками, все они без исключения приняли меня хорошо (а их очень много  :P ). А мама - вообще золотой человек  :love:
Когда мы жили в Стамбуле, то практически каждый день к нам приходили и приезжали гости  :)



Alinkin privetik, ya poznakomilas s nim v iune mesyaca 2008 goda v inete, 5 mesyacev obchalis v inete, potom on priehal ko mne v kazakstan, pobil 1 mesyac i ya yehala s nim, i vot s noyabrya mesyaca 2008 givu v ankare, cherez 20 dnei posle moego priezda sigrali svadbu, roditeli ego menya ochen gdali, vstretıili kak bydychyy doc svoy, bse super u menya
Fistaski privetik, nu vidno da, menya vse lubyat ı sestra ego, nu tiş dergis, gelay tebe toka scastya, vsego samogo naılychego, vidimo est zdes i plohşii ludi, prosto ya eche ne vstrechala



nastulya написал(а):

sigrali svadbu

nastulya а свадьба большая была, много гостей  :question: По турецким обычаям  :question:
Расскажи, а то мы в Турции свадьбу не делали :dontknow: . Хотя на одной я была, имею представление о турецкой свадьбе, но всё же интересно  :blush:



Özkan privetik, da vse bilo po tureskim obichaim, 1 den do zagsa, prihodili gosti odni devyshki, y nas bilo chelovek 70, obrayd i vse takoe, na sleduchii den zags, narody ne mnogo tat kak vse pochti rodstveniki muga givut v drygih gorodah, a tak vse super



как относятся?по-моему так же как и наши родители к туркам))



относятся ХО-РО-ШО, НО...
1) не забываем что у нас разный менталитет...
2) да, к нам сначала присматриваются что мы "русские" ..спасибо за это курортным "пташкам",
но не будем врать и у нас есть предубеждение по отношению к туркам.
Собственно если ты относишься доброжелательно, не строишь из себя фифу..то и тебя принимают хорошо.



zafer написал(а):

А к украинкам тоже так относятся?

вы думаете для них украинки и русские настолько разные?))))))))))))



курдистаночка написал(а):

вы думаете для них украинки и русские настолько разные

:D ой насмешили..)))для них и молдаванки т полячки "русские"))

курдистаночка написал(а):

не строишь из себя фифу..то и тебя принимают хорошо.

это как?типа я тут приехала развлекайте меня?или "ой ноготь отвалился как же я буду мыть посуду?"



непонятные ощущения после прочитанного...
и хочется и колется замуж за турка...



тоже ничего не скажу плохого про турецкие семьи. плохие, слава богу, мне не встретились)) родители монго мч просто потрясающие. приняли меня как дочь. я собственно уже не знаю кто меня больше любит, мой ашкым или его мама)))) да и родственники, с которыми я встречалась, очень доброжелательные...называли меня сладкой барби и уговаривали моего мч на мне поскорее жениться, а то  уведут))) А дядя вообще его отцу сказал - смотрите, не упустите, мол, Дашу))) так что  семьи в Турции разные...как в прочем и везде



Fistaski написал(а):

Кстати слышала очень много негатива по отношению к кудским семьям,со своей стороны могу сказать,что тут в Измире у мужа очень много друзей курдов,и как ни странно это все очень хорошие люди,приятные в общении,очень милые и доброжелательные.И их отношение к жёнам гораздо более лояльное по сравнению с турками.Я наблюдала не одну семью-была просто поражена насколько бережное отношение к женщине

могу подтвердить! мой самый лучший нянька в турции - курд....
он даже обижелася если что...говорил: я же курд, не турок! как я могу что-то плохое думать и тем более сделать женщине??!!



оооо, об отношении курдов к женщине можно многое написать ... и только хорошего.  Очень заботливо мужчины относятся к своим женщинам, женам, матерям...но блин какие ревнивые, главное повода не давать, ато пипец



турки не менее ревнивы
они там все такие помоему))))



Iris написал(а):

они там все такие помоему

Это уже национальная черта и собственники тоже. Надо только, чтобы на них смотрели и никуда в сторону. Хотя трудно, наверное, пройти по улице и ни на кого не взглянуть, разве что глаза завязать. И вообще восточные народы всегда горячей кровью отличались...



с моей страстью пообщаться - любой роман с такими ревнивцами может закончиться фатально))) эхх
не судьба)))



..хм, лучше не шутить, ато будет новый материал  .."об убийствах чести" в Турции, я бы не рискнула турку изменить, порежет всех и глазом не маргнет, ещё и оправдают потом или скажут что сама



вот именно....они и не скрывают этого



Семья моего жениха приняла меня с теплом и любовью, я их полюбила с первого взгляда, так как не знаю в сосершенстве турецкого языка, то приходиось общаться на языке жестов, турецких и немецких фраз! Самое интересное, что мы понимали друг друга с полу слова. Вот только мой МЧ, как мне показалось, приревновал к своим родителям))))))). Вот смешной))))). Только повод дай, и все - он уже готов!!!



Эх... А мне только предстоит знакомство  http://s8.rimg.info/b6ebaa9ba100f9e8971191c1476a5d86.gif 
Хотя мне кажется, что семья унего просто замечательная.
Вот только он хочет, чтобы мы построили один общий дом и жили вместе с мамой. Я призадумалась. Что делать?



мама говоришь)))
ну сначала познакомьтесь))))
а там сама поймешь захочешь с ней жить или нет



Скрытый текст:

Для просмотра скрытого текста - войдите или зарегистрируйтесь.



сахарная косточка,Elvenera удачи вам в знакомстве с будующей родней)))



СПАСИБО!!! :flirt:



ого сколько всего интересного я пропустила))))мне в Турции встречаются только нормальные люди с адекватным отношениям к русским))хотя насчет имени я согласна с девченками,что лучше не представлятся Наташей((мой меня Нателла или Тата зовет.единственный минус-никогда не знаешь что у турков на уме.даже если тебя обнимают,целуют и улыбаются,неизвестно,что они говорят за твоей спиной(обычно это относится к соседям и дальним родственникам мужа)



yaren написал(а):

единственный минус-никогда не знаешь что у турков на уме.даже если тебя обнимают,целуют и улыбаются,неизвестно,что они говорят за твоей спиной(обычно это относится к соседям и дальним родственникам мужа)

типа не знаешь)))) не так одета, не так села, не так ела, и вообще внешность, и что он в ней нашел, и какая она красивая/некрасивая, и вот она по 20 раз на день не делает уборки в доме, не готовит по нашему, и вообще ОНА НЕ ТУРЧАНКА))))))))))



Свернутый текст

yaren а действительно тебя здесь дано не было))) в Турции была?))))



ага)))то есть догадываюсь конечно но не знаю точно какими словами они меня называют))))))))))))))



Здесь правда тема про родствеников - я правда не про родствеников а про знакомых но все же поделюсь.
Когда я переехала в Турцию перед тем как расписатся мы с мужен снимали дом с его друзьями (муж и жена) на двоих.
Это был просто кошмар!!!!В глаза улыбка и чай те поднесет (девушка) при всех. При людях такое впечатление что последную рубашку отдаст.
А по заглаза такое!!!İ настраивала всех других наших знакомых против меня. İ что я и готовить не умею, и не убераю. Если скажу что какие то ихние мне традиции не очень  нравытася то в ответ - ^Ой помоему тебе ничего в Турции не нравиться^.Сами постояно ругаются, но при мне идилия, даже мужу руки целуит (театрально пока :flag: зательное выступление соблюдениые всех традиций). Сама английского толком не знает, и вообще толком со мной один на один не разговаривает - зато один раз про девственность заговорила - харам и все дела...
Всем знакомым в лицо абла, джаным -  а потом когда гости расодятся начинается перемывание костей - тот двуличный, та сякая пересякая - все чиркин у нее (и главное если сама была бы красавицей).
Ненавижу двуличных людей, не люблю жополизнечества (извенити накипело)  :mad: - поэтому она у меня оставила очень плохое впечатление именно о турчанках....



Не могу не согласиться с последним автором.
Какие же турчанки лицемерные!
Например, младшая сестра моего мужчины....
Мы делаем всё, чтобы ей было комфортно (живёт с нами). У неё ДВЕ своих комнаты - спальня и кабинет. Мы приносим её любимые сладости, я глажу её вещи, никогда не нагружаем её домашними делами...живи и радуйся. Но нет...она всё равно вечно с недовольным лицом.
Уехала к родителям на каникулы, и методично капала им на мозги. О том, что неплохо бы брату найти богатую невесту, местную, а не иностранку, и что я его не люблю (это вообще убило!). Накрутила и без того сумасшедшего и злобного отца, у матери кровь из носа шла несколько дней на нервной почве...

Оказалось, что она РЕВНУЕТ! Брат проводит время со мной, покупает мне всё, что я хочу, обожает меня...
Она меня за это тихо ненавидит.
А в лицо так сладко улыбается!
Интересуется, как у меня дела, заваривает мне чай, супчики приносит...


Вы здесь » Форум о прекрасном: Турции и всем, что с ней связано » Все о Турции. Everything about Turkey. » Как отосятся турецкая родня к русским невесткам?